1= Quran occupies the unique and distinct position among all religious Books and Scriptures that it completes the evolution of religion and it remains unchanged :
i= ??This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islam as religion?? (ch 5: from v 4)
ii= Verily, it is We Who have sent down this Exhortation, and most surely We are its Guardian. (ch 15: v 10)
2= Since all true religions are from same God, Quran acknowledges them. New truths are revealed and new era of light have dawned and those who live a life of ignorance through no faults of their own and those who generally try to live a life of truth even if they inherited false ideologies, will not be denied salvation. As Quran says:
Surely, those who have believed and the Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians ? whoso believes in Allah and the Last Day and does good deed, on them shall come no fear nor shall they grieve. (ch 5: v 70)
3= Quran prevents from censuring indiscriminately all those who do not belong to Islam:
They are not alike. Among the people of Book are those who are very pious and God-fearing, and who stand by their covenant; they recite the Word of Allah in the hours of night and prostrate themselves before Him. They believe in Allah and the Last Day, enjoin good, forbid evil, and hasten to vie with one another in good works. These are among the righteous. Whatever good they do, they shall not be denied its dues reward, and Allah well knows those guard against evil. ( ch 3 v 114-116)
4= Now about the point you raised?The verse you presented is from Chapter 9, Al-Tauba.
First the English transliteration of Arabic verse (9:29):
QAATELULAZEENA LA YOMENOONA BILLAHEY WA LA BILYOMIL AAKHERE WA LA YOHERREMOONA MAA HARRAMAALHO WA RASULOHU WA LA YADENOONA DEENAL HAQQEY MINALLAZINA OOTUL KITABA HATTA YOTULJIZYATA AAN YADIN WA HUM SAGHERUN.
Now the translation, piece by piece:
QAATELULAZEENA (fight those who) LA YOMENOONA(not believe) BILLAHEY(in Allah) WA LA(and not) BILYOMIL AAKHERE (in Last Day) WA(and) LA YOHARREMOONA(have not declared to be unlawful) MAA (what) HARRAMAALHO (Allah has declared unlawful) WA RASULOHU (and His Messenger) WA LA(and not) YADENOONA(accept, follow) DEENAL HAQQEY(true religion) MINALLAZINA (from among) OOTUL KITABA(who were given the Book) HATTA(until) YOTUL JIZYATA(they pay jizya) AAEEN YADIN(with hand) WA HUM SAGHERUN(and they acknowledge subjection).
-----(fight those who)-----(not believe) -----(in Allah)---(and not) ---(in Last Day)---(and)----(have not declared to be unlawful) ---(what)----- (Allah has declared unlawful) -----(and His Messenger) -------(and not) -----(follow)-------(true religion) ------- (from among) -------(who were given the Book) ------(until) -------(they pay jizya) -------(with hand)-------(and they acknowledge subjection).
Fight those from among the People of the Book, who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor hold as unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have declared to be unlawful, nor follow the true religion, until they pay the tax with hand and acknowledge their subjection. (9:29)
i= After the Fall of Mecca with general pardon to persecutors tribes Hawazin and Thaqif joined forces and advanced attack on the Muslims in Hunain, about 15 miles to the south-west of Mecca, but eventually they lost. The rule and authority of Islam had been established throughout Hijaz.
Certain tribes had made treaties with Muslims and had laid down arms. But there were others who had not made formal submission, had not laid down their arms and also had not made any treaty with the Muslims. They had commenced hostilities against Muslims and though they have been vanquished, they had not yet acknowledged defeat nor had agreed to live in peace with Muslims. These tribes were given four month period of respite during which operations against would remain suspended. They could go about freely in the land and satisfy themselves that further resistance was useless. (Such people are mentioned in beginning of chapter 9)
ii= The verse (9:29) refers to some from those People of Book who lived in Arabia. [Caution: verse is not mentioning All People of Book]. Like the idolaters, some of them too had been actively hostile to Islam. Muslims were therefore ordered to fight them unless they agreed to, live as loyal and peaceful subjects.
The Jizyah was a tax which these non-Muslims had to pay as free subjects of the Muslim state in return for the protection they enjoyed under it.
It may be noted that against Jizyah imposed on non-Muslims, A Much Heavier Tax ?ZAKAT was levied on the Muslims, and in addition to Zakat, they had to perform military services from which non-Muslims were exempt.
After having dealt with believers? relation with idolaters, the chapter 9 with this verse (9:29) proceeds to deal with their relation with the People of the Book, especially with their religious belief and doctrines.
5= O people of Book! Come to a word equal between us and you ? that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partner with Him, and that some of us take not others for Lords besides Allah. But if they turn away, then say, Bear witness that we have submitted (to God). (ch 3: v 65)
Peace be on all!
Promised Reforms: https://www.alislam.org/archives/
Islam?s Response to Contemporary issues: https://www.alislam.org/library/.../IslamsResponseToContemporaryIssues.pdf
Muhammad: Seal of the Prophets: https://www.alislam.org/library/books/muhammad_seal_of_the_prophets/